Grant proposal to the Folke Bernadotte Academy and eventually other potential sources
Sweden April, 2008
“Amahoro - Consolidating Peace
in Burundi 2008-2009”
By publishing this on our homepage, we want to promote transparency and clarity about the project even though we do not at the moment - April 2008 - know whether or not it will be financed or to what extent. We also do not know that the project will succeed on the ground. Time will tell!
The Bernadotte Academy has generously supported TFF’s projects under the title of “Solidifying Peace in Burundi” twice. This grant proposal serves to take this work forward in co-operation with both civil society and the Burundian government.
- Burundi’s overall movement towards peace, security, democracy and development is remarkable and merits much more international attention, even though this process is not yet consolidated to an extent that fallbacks cannot happen. It hosts an effective UN mission and is one of two selected countries for the UN Peacebuilding Commission, chaired by Norway.
- Since 1999 TFF has developed a unique presence in Burundi and enjoys the trust of many in civil society, the government and the President of the country. We have accumulated a series of best practises, drawn lessons from earlier experiences and learned what does not work – and what may – in this particular culture.
- It is our firm view that a consistent philosophy and a sustained engagement with presence on the ground in Burundi is a sine qua non of assisting this country today rather than tomorrow. Continuity is of the essence.
- This grant proposal has two main dimensions. It shall support a newly established Amahoro Youth Club (Amahoro means peace in the local Kirundi language) which can be seen as a direct continuation of TFF’s work with 13 leading NGOs in the country the last three years.
- Secondly it aims to assist TFF in its role as trainer and facilitator/consultant vis-à-vis the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in establishing an International Strategy of Communication – a long-term process that aims to help Burundi obtain more international media and other attention, promote truthful knowledge and goodwill about its remarkable peace process and thus attract more, much-needed humanitarian and development assistance in the future – which in turn will solidify its peace.
- As will be clear from the earlier reports and the enclosed materials, both the Amahoro Youth Club and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs have taken substantially part in the preparations up to and in the formulation of this grant application.
- TFF is the only Swedish organisation of its kind continuously engaged over several years in Burundi’s peace process. Through its earlier project reports and its website we build in the following on the Bernadotte Academy’s familiarity with these achievements and trust that the Academy will appreciate the importance for Burundi of our continued engagement.
- Please observe that both the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Amahoro Youth Club make their own statements of their vision and their needs – included with this grant proposal. They, better than TFF, speak of the huge needs and urgency and on their wish to be supported by the Bernadotte Academy through TFF’s continued engagement in their country.
- We are aware that the grant period is normally 12 months. However, based on earlier experience, one must account with the possibility that 18 months may a more realistic term. If it comes to that, we shall ask for such an extension.
- It is a common understanding between TFF and the two Burundian partners that they shall carry the projects for which we seek funding here by their own efforts and become self-reliant as soon as possible.
A. Introduction and general background
Burundi – short background
Burundi is number 171 out of the 175 countries on UNDP's Human Development Index. The GNP per capita is US $145. There is one doctor per 100,000 citizens and not even one psychiatrist in the whole country; 40,000 die annually because of AIDS. The Annual UN Consolidated Appeal for Humanitarian Aid is in the order of US$ 150 million and, regrettably, met by the donor community to less than 50 per cent on a regular basis. By any standard, this is a very small sum in the international community, about $ 17 US per capita.
Due to e.g. overpopulation and adverse climate conditions, hunger is now widespread in several provinces; the donor community has reacted very slowly, particularly after the Tsunami catastrophe. If development and security are seen as legitimate human needs and applied as criteria for foreign assistance, Burundi qualifies beyond doubt. Indeed, if not assisted now, there is a risk that the violence may return.
Burundi is moving from a thirty-years old ethnic conflict towards peace. This violent period has taken some 300.000 lives, wounded many and destroyed uncountable bodies, souls and human trust.
A peace agreement was signed in Arusha-Tanzania in August 2000 between 17 political parties and armed movements. It began to be implemented in November 2001 with the establishment of transitional institutions and the alternation power between Pierre Buyoya and his vice-president Domitien Ndayizeye. Two other cease-fire agreements were signed in August and December 2002. Important progress was achieved in September 2003 with the Pretoria protocol regarding the sharing of political and military power between the government and rebel movements. In April 2005, the last rebel movement, the FNL, agreed to a cease-fire but it did not hold. There is some hope that this last group will accept to sit down at the negotiation table in 2008 under the mediation of South Africa.
The achievements of the peace process hitherto
The peace achievements are truly remarkable, clearly beyond the most hopeful expectation of connoisseurs a few years ago. Ninety per cent of the people went to vote on a new constitution including a power-sharing and quota arrangement, and 90 per cent said ‘yes.’
A comprehensive DDR process has been completed, thousands of fighters – including child soldiers – have been disarmed and a new ethnically mixed army of about one-third of the soldiers. The national curfew has been lifted; after years of insecurity, it is again possible to travel to all provinces.
Elections on five levels from the local ‘collines’ to the President have been conducted, orderly and peacefully. Very many new MPs are new faces, meaning a lot of corrupted politicians have left the stage. The new democratically elected President Pierre Nkurunziza is a former guerrilla fighter who has publicly apologized for his crimes, is a devote Christian, a man who travels the country and talks with citizens everywhere and provides moral leadership to many.
As many as 36 per cent of the new ministers are women, including the Foreign Minister with whom TFF works directly, and the president repeatedly emphasizes the importance of women taking part in all spheres of society.
A comprehensive and visionary government program for 2005-2010 has been produced in a few months, it gives priority to security, peace and development and their integration. An anti-corruption program has been installed and expensive government cars are being sold; as an important role model, the president hands back per diems to the treasury when returning from abroad.
Free education for all at primary school level has been given priority, as has free maternal health care, even though there is no budget yet for it.
The longterm UN mission, ONUB, has been so successful as peacekeeper that it could be withdrawn during spring 2006 and was replaced by the smaller BINUB. The new UN Peacebuilding Commission has chosen Burundi as one of is two target countries.
Freedom of the press is for all practical purposes a fact, although there are still some momentary clamp-downs.
A national commission for truth and reconciliation has been established.
Of the greatest significance, perhaps, is that whatever hatred there has been between the majority Hutu population and the minority Tutsi and Twa population, it is now gone. The above-mentioned achievements have implicitly promoted co-existence as has the indigenous reconciliation and mediation tradition of Abashingantahe councils throughout the country.
While a few years ago one could not publicly mention the words “hutu” and “tutsi” TFF’s team has experienced how perfectly possible it is now to talk openly about it, conduct public debates about the history and genocide and it has worked with the various groups without any experience of ethnic animosity among them.
There are still many problems and risks – and they are also challenges for the international community
The remarkable achievements will come to nothing unless solidified inside and with various types of attention and assistance from the outside. Failure to offer Burundi much-needed assistance will, it is judged by TFF and others involved, increase the risk that the country to fall out in mass violence again.
Here are some major challenges: Ongoing poverty; violence not the least against women, perhaps a risk that the overwhelming majority of the government party could produce a feeling of being all-powerful and ignoring the de facto very small opposition; the 2008 blockade of the parliament’s normal work is one sign.
There is the land issue, refugees and IDPs returning only to find that their plots and houses have been taken over by others; and this is related to rapidly increasing population figures. There are huge income differentials. There is hunger and misery in about one-third of the provinces. Also, the risk of coup d’etats by dissatisfied, demobilized soldiers should not be underestimated as it is of utmost importance that demobilized militaries is provided with a substantial experience that civilian life is better for them and their families than was the – often money- and privilege-making – war years.
It is a highly complex, deeply human-existential process with no success guaranteed. But one thing is sure: with various types of support from neutral professional actors abroad, the chances for violence-prevention and sustainable peace does indeed increase.
The links between security, peace, reconciliation and future development
Peace can be defined as the capacity to develop security and secure development. No society, let alone individual human beings, can develop without some kind of security, i.e. knowing that they are likely to exist tomorrow too. And no security can be provided without various kinds of material, intellectual and spiritual resources. The connecting point between the two are, of course, conflicts – conflicts about scarce resources and development policies as well as conflicts about what security means at the individual, local, state, regional and global level. Thus, peace can be expanded to mean: handling well – i.e. with as little violence as possible - the conflicts that are bound to arise when societies develop security and secure development.
It goes without saying that a post-war situation like Burundi’s must simultaneously address security and peace in order to hope to jumpstart its economy, produce and sell its products and attract foreign aid and investments. Similarly, when thousands of former soldiers are de-mobilised and refugees turn back to their villages, there must be schools for their children, health facilities and employment opportunities in order to make the peace path more attractive than the path of falling back into war and genocide.
In several articles TFF has argued for a new concept of peace aid and, it could be added, post-war media attention. If countries struggling hard to make and solidify peace are forgotten or lose out in the competition with war-torn countries about global media attention, they are likely to be overlooked by international (aid) organizations and political decision-makers, and then they are likely to see their peace process stall and face, unwillingly and unfairly, the risk of fallbacks into genocide and war.
For former combatants to begin to work together on rebuilding the country and healing the socio-psychological wounds, opportunities have to be offered to meet, gain a basic knowledge of conflict-resolution, negotiation, democratic governance – and approach the hugely difficult problems of truth, forgiveness and reconciliation. TFF can not and shall not do this alone; it aims only to offer such peace aid to its two main partners in Burundi – that it helps empowering them to do the real job on the ground.
In summary, solidifying the peace process, root it in civil society in Burundi is the key to development and perceived human security which, in its turn, is the key to preventing a fall back into genocide. If successful, Burundi’s peace process will also make a considerable contribution to stabilizing the Great Lakes region.
B. The 2008-2009 projects
1. International Communication Strategy – Ministry of Foreign Affairs
In several articles TFF has argued for a new concept of peace aid and, it could be added, post-war media attention. If countries struggling hard to make and solidify peace are forgotten by the world or lose out in the competition with war-torn countries about global media attention, they are likely to be overlooked by international (aid) organizations and political decision-makers. Thus, they are likely to see their peace process stall and face, unwillingly and unfairly, the risk of fallbacks into genocide and war. This is the overall challenge facing Burundi, and this challenge is partly actor-oriented, partly structural.
In our co-operation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs we have proposed this vision: While the world associate the word Rwanda with genocide, how can we make it associate the word Burundi with peace process and a good story out of Africa?
Here is the connection: If Burundi could obtain more international attention and better influence its image abroad by a systematic information effort inside and outside Burundi, the probability of obtaining more assistance from the world is likely to increase.
To achieve this, there are a number of challenges such as:
- the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has only one (1) computer connected to the Internet and when electricity cuts happen, there is no connection;
- the Ministry itself has no homepage;
- there is only a handful of embassies abroad, few with modern communication equipment and the necessary skills;
- deficient training of journalists and other media-relevant people inside Burundi, also those who serve as stringers for international media.
The list could be longer. There are also severe structural challenges in the global community such as:
- the relative lack of interest by the leading media in the world to cover “good” stories, including successful post-war peacebuilding;
- the news and documentaries in today’s world being to a large extent a commodity and money – through the employment of commercial marketing firms – a tool to buy attention and influence, a tool that Burundi simply does not possess;
- the fact that Burundi has neither a strategic position, raw materials or other assets to automatically attract foreign investment or interests in general;
- the poverty, lack of infrastructure, mal- and underdevelopment – making it less attractive from a utilitarian perspective, even though it also holds interesting potentials in, for instance, tourism and coffee- and tea production.
Enabled by the earlier Bernadotte Academy grant, TFF has conducted a seminar with staff from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Presidency and Parliament through which the participants themselves developed a very first draft of an International Strategy of Communication. We have thus secured a sense of ownership and indigenous quality rather than a “foreign” idea, a feature which is absolutely essential in Burundi and appreciated by the Minister.
The enclosed letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Antoinette Batumubwira, who is herself a professionally educated journalist and sociologist of mass communication from Paris, indicates that this first step has been promising and needs quick follow-up.
This grant proposal is therefore a direct follow-up to what TFF has already done in this field in Burundi. This follow-up may also involve education and training of the Ministry’s (and Presidency and Parliamentary) information and communication staff, Burundian media people, civil society organizations like the Maison de la Presse, the leading journalist NGO in the country that was also a member of the Amahoro Coalition.
A major ingredient in this follow-up should be, according to both the Minister’s and TFF’s judgement, more education and training in a variety of ways for the inter-ministerial Task Force that will eventually carry the country’s International Communication Strategy forward. There is also a strong need for modern technical equipment, such as computers, software, email services, video, etc., but chances are good that aid agencies, including the World Bank, will be helpful in the direction of covering these needs.
2. The Amahoro Youth Club - AYC
The AYC has been under development since spring 2007. It has developed statutes and purposes and handed in its registration papers to the Ministry of the Interior. Its founding members are 13 university students – 5 women and 8 men - and NGO members who have a) been disappointed with the “older” and more established NGO leaders attitude to working for peace in Burundi and b) are themselves devoted to make a difference in the future by means of a much more idealistic motivation, self-help and self-reliance and whose working morale emphasize punctuality, reliability, transparency trust and professional NGO management.
The Club borrows a goals-means metaphor from Gandhi – that they will be the change they want to see.
The overarching mission of the AYC is:
“To solidify peace and sustainable development through spaces of exchange for Burundian young people.”
Thus, the peace process is in focus but development is parallel. Secondly, exchanges or dialogues throughout the Burundian society are essential, and that includes a wide variety of public meetings, reaching out to the countryside and use of media, radio in particular. The means to promote peace and development is, in other words, dialogue and democratization. Finally, the emphasis is on Burundi’s youth inside and outside the country.
The members are between 20 and 30 years of age and are basically students while the Club is open to membership by any Burundian youth. Many of them are members of NGOs that belonged to TFF Amahoro Coalition organizations such as Génies en Herbes, Universite Lumiére, and APDH - Association Pour Le Paix et les Droits de l’Homme.
The Club enjoys the personal support of Jean-Marie Kavumbagu, former President of the human rights organization League Iteka, the oldest and most esteemed Burundian NGO.
TFF’s permanent co-ordinator Ina Curic since 2007 (who is also member of the foundation’s Board) has worked intensely with the AYC to shape the founding members into a coherent, professional nucleus that will soon be well equipped to carry the responsibility to open up the membership to many new members and propagate the Club throughout the country. Jan Oberg knows several of the founding members since they were either his students when he gave a Peace Studies course at the Lumiére University in 2006 or participants in earlier training sessions; he too has recently co-trained the founding members with Ina Curic in peace and conflict issues as well as NGO management skills.
In short, there is good continuity between the former and former Amahoro Coalition and this new, more promising Youth Club. Our work with this Club enjoys the support of leaders of old Coalition member such as David Niyonzima of THARS, Trauma Healing and Reconciliations Services, Eulalie Nibizi of STEB, President of the Teachers’ Association and Jean Marie Kavumbagu of League ITEKA, all leading organisations in their field in Burundi.
We believe that the following fact is a particularly important improvement: Since membership of the AYC is personal, the old dilemma of loyalty with one’s own NGO and the collective, horizontal Amahoro Coalition will be gone. The members of the AYC have one loyalty, their Club, and one commitment, their country’s peace and development through democratization.
Planned and possible activities 2008
Here follow what the Amahoro Youth Club 13 founders have come up with in trainings and brainstorms with TFF’s Ina Curic and Jan Oberg:
- Establishment of meeting room and office;
- Establishment of website and one or more blogs by members and/or online community for Club members only (e.g. Ning.com);
- Running one or more study circles to develop the intellectual capacity of the Club – reading books and websites related to Gandhi, Luther King, Mandela, and Burundian Maggi of the Maison Shalom;
- Visits to other youth-related NGOs particularly in the countryside, to learn from their experience and develop partnerships where relevant;
- Workshop for youth leaders, training, education and dialogue by Burundian ex-President;
- Local fund-raising & donations. The AYC has been trained from the first moment in the necessity of earning its own money on activities and developing income-generating activities in order to remain free, self-reliant and never become beggars. The Club members are working on various schemes including monthly and annual membership fees, entrance fees to events, income from trainings and seminars, courses given by AYC members, and the like.
The emphasis is on integrated activities that serve both the country’s peace process, the AYC itself and the self-financing; for instance, children’s drawing become posters and postcards for sale and propagation of the Club. The Club will also seek to raise start-up donations from family, friends, local business people and wealthy Burundians who see the value of supporting serious and transparent youth-based civil society work; finally, they will make deals with local companies to get favourable prices and sell items with a profit. (See the AYC budget proposal for details).
- Income-generation – the AYC shall eventually have a multi-purpose Open Centre where seminars, trainings, computers, library etc can be found. As part of it, the Club wants to run income-generating activities such as a café, exhibitions, printing facility, computer courses, and the like – the profit of which can be ploughed into new peace and development activities; see the AYC budget proposal for details;
- Creating a radio show unit with an already established radio station since radio is the most important media countrywide;
- A series of posters - the mind bomb type of campaign: clear, daring, positive messages to be spread anywhere;
- Drawings of Peace Competition – announcing a competition for school children everywhere to create positive images; the best 25 to be selected by a jury and printed as both posters, postcards and calendars, thus creating an income;
- International Peace Day September 21 - for instance a peace fair with positive peace initiatives that contribute to consolidate peace in Burundi, public debates on achievements and challenges ahead for the Burundian peace process;
- A March for Peace through the country co-ordinated with local NGOs, schools, governorates, radio stations and aiming to sensitize the people to work together for the common good as well as articulate priorities to the government;
- A 16 day campaign against gender-based violence, November 25-December 10 (Human Rights Day); this is the big event in Burundi, many NGOs coming together with numerous activities; an important opportunity for the AYC to get involved and bring a different, new voice to the momentum;
- Public dialogues on the importance of peace in gender relations: from violence to peace, from bedroom to battlefield (a well-known expression in the gender field about linking levels); participation in activities and suggest at least one positive thing as others will once again work/talk on NO to violence and forget to discuss: YES to what? Youth promoting healthier ways of relating among genders promoting an alternative to the violent and tough norm of masculinity which is also quite present in Burundi;
- Democracy-building town-meetings – the idea is to hold a public meeting in Bujumbura and/or Gitega where politicians, NGOs and perhaps foreign diplomats will form panels and discuss important issues in front of rather large audiences, and the event being covered by the media. This type of meeting does not exist today in Burundi and would be an innovative platform for dialogue between government and civil society.
- The Peace Bus – buying and old bus and equip it with leaflets, videos, music, educational materials, NGOs representatives and youth, and drive around the country, stopping at every square and discuss with locals at all levels – citizens, mayors, NGOs, teachers - future projects and training, present the Club, invite new members. In short reaching out and overcome the fact that over 90% of all NGO work happens in the capital today.
- An AYC Centre. When enough practical experiences has been gained, presumably after the first 12-18 months, the dream of the present AYC founders is to establish a permanent centre for peace and development education. It will be multi-purpose with facilities for courses, seminars, NGO coordination, public information, computers, exhibition, a small library/reading space, café etc.
These are all proposals coming from the YAC founders themselves. To do just some of them will require a little money, and with all volunteering, even small sums will make a big difference in this country.
In addition, some of the above-mentioned ideas can be realized without specific budget or by “piggy bagging” on other organizations; for instance, members will free of charge attend a course on Nonviolent Communication (Marshall Rosenberg) when it is anyhow given by TFF Associate Sururu Adolphe; they will also teach each other. Other activities can be supported by income-generation and local donations. But the rest will require some financial support at least in a take off phase.
Feasibility, risk and other matters
TFF believes that these projects with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Amahoro Youth Club are distinctly possible and hold a considerable potential in the direction of consolidating peace in Burundi.
The Youth Club is an indigenous initiative among some of the best and the brightest. They came to TFF and asked whether we could help their dream come true; their motivation is truly idealistic and they exhibit none of the somewhat unhealthy practices that can be found among NGOs in the country, such as seeking personal privileges or foreign funds exclusively for one’s own NGO.
TFF has known them individually and worked with them over the last 10 months. Their concept is clear and visionary. What they need is guidance, coaching, management skills, day-to-day operational skills – trial-and-error being an important teacher.
TFF’s Ina Curic has multi-year experience in NGO work under difficult circumstances. She has creativity and requires discipline and responsibility of everyone. Since she has her own network in Burundi – which can benefit TFF and the AYC in several ways - and since she earns some honorariums beyond her TFF-related work, she can stay for at least and hopefully 2 years and always be available to the AYC and require rather little in terms of budget.
TFF has developed a unique presence in Burundi and enjoys the trust of many in civil society, the government and the President of the country. We have accumulated a series of best practised, drawn from earlier experiences and learned what does not work – and what may – in this particular culture. Although the former Amahoro Coalition of NGOs did not realize its stated long-term goals, we have retained a lot of support from individuals in several of them as mentioned above – people who will support the AYC in the future. The rather insurmountable dilemma of loyalty with one own NGO and an overarching, all-for-one Coalition will not re-appear as the AYC is a new NGO doing things in a new way and with a disciplined, idealistic ethos.
The security situation in the whole country has, we judge, improved over the years TFF has worked there. It is highly unlikely that insecurity would rise to disturb our work there in 2008-2009. However, in the context of the upcoming elections there have been threats and risks for instrumentalization of aid for political purposes; given the poverty and the land issue, there is always a certain potential for local social unrest, and – as is well-known – a negotiated agreement with the last rebel fraction, FNL, remains hanging in the air.
If anything, this situation alls for more international peace-building initiatives by Burundian civil society as well as by the international community.
This project and budget proposal of course is for TFF’s work in Burundi. To the extent that it can be financed by the Folke Bernadotte Academy, it will go a long way in assisting both the Ministry of Foreign Affair and the Amahoro Youth Club. However, both these two partners are fully aware that they must seek funding elsewhere.
When it comes to the Amahoro Youth Club it will cover its needs through TFF’s grant for activities, through submitting its proposals to embassies and UN agencies in Bujumbura and the region, seeking donations locally and, above all, create a series of income-generating activities as part of their projects/events for peace. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is, we have been informed, hopeful to obtain a number of computers and other equipment to further the future international communication strategy.
TFF intends, likewise, to seek funds from foreign ministries in Copenhagen and Oslo and, if needed, elsewhere. This in and of itself reduces the demands on each donor/funding agency as well as reduces the foundation’s vulnerability in its effort to be fully engaged in Burundi’s peace process in years to come.
TFF is an independent scholarly foundation set up in 1986. It’s mission is “peace - learning to handle conflicts with ever less violence. Our tools are new ideas, listening, research, mitigation, education and advocacy”. The foundation has carried out some 70 field missions to all parts of former Yugoslavia since 1991 and fact-finding missions to Georgia (including South Ossetia and Abkhazia). During the last few years, it has conducted on-the-ground work in Iraq and, lately, Greenland.
It is a networking organisation that puts together teams for special tasks. As an all-volunteer organisation, it does not employ permanent staff but co-ordinates about 70 associates with very different backgrounds in the Nordic countries and the rest of the world.
Jan Oberg, PhD in sociology, all-round peace and conflict researcher, experienced in theoretical and practical field conflict resolution and peace work. Project coordinator with Ina Curic
Ina Curic is a trained sociologist, with a M.A. in Gender Studies from Babes-Bolyai University, Romania and a M.A. in Peace and Conflict Studies from the European Peace University, Austria. She has a solid background in peace and conflict research, gender studies and NGO management and more than ten years work experience in civil society organizations in different countries. TFF’s permanent co-ordinator in Burundi 2007-2009 and project director with Jan Oberg.
TFF’s team with specific knowledge from Burundi:
Christian Hårleman, Lieutenant Colonel, Rtd, former chairman of the TFF Board, deades of experience as UN peacekeeper, one fact-finding mission to Burundi.
Gudrun Engström, nurse, TFF adviser, several missions to Burundi as head of the office of the Norwegian Refugee Council’s operations there.
Evelin Lindner, medical doctor and PhD in psychology, dissertation on humiliation and healing, several visits to Burundi and conflict regions in Africa and other continents.
Else Hammerich, former lecturer at Teacher’s College in Copenhagen, former member of the European Parliament, experienced teacher and trainer in conflict-resolution, reconciliation and negotiation with numerous groups, including training and establishment of the Tibetan Conflict Resolution Center in Dharamshala, India under Dalai Lama’s blessings. Former TFF board member.
Chantal Mutamuriza, President and founder of Burundian ACAT, Action by Christians Against Torture, since 2001, numerous diploma courses abroad in human rights, peace, conflict-resolution and election monitoring. TFF Associate and coordinator in Burundi 2005-2007, now with a human rights organization in Geneva,
Adolphe Sururu, professor, Burundi National University, PhD in psychology, specialized in non-violent communication and conflict-resolution.
TFF is experienced in its professional field and in working in war-zones. It is also a respected comprehensive Internet organisation known for emphasising public outreach and sharing its knowledge and experiences widely.
All information about the foundation is available - values and history, programmes, associates, publications, etc.
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